From a cultural perspective
When the Civil War ended in 1865, land ownership rights were made available to formerly enslaved Gullah Geechee people on the plantations. Moreover, formerly enslaved Gullah Geechee people that lived off of the plantations were also afforded land ownership rights. When land ownership rights were deeded or recognized, the Gullah Geechee culture on Sapelo Island established thirteen distinct Gullah Geechee settlements. The total land acreage consisted of at least 2,700 acres. According to the culture, the settlements are Shell Hummock, Behavior, Riverside, Hanging Bull, Kenan Field, Lumber Landing, Bell Marsh, Chocolate, High Point, Bourbon Field, Raccoon Bluff, Hogg Hummock, and Johnson Hummock.